BONE CHINA : In attempts to imitate oriental porcelains, such factories as Wedgwood (est. 1759), Derby (est. 1750) and Worcester (est. 1751), kept on improving their processes. Towards the end of the 18th century, Josiah Spode, from Stoke-on-Trent, produced a hybrid bone-porcelain, combining the essential ingredients of hard-paste with bone ash. Proportions varied from manufacturer to manufacturer, but the percentage could well be: 25% china clay, 25% china petuntse, 50% bone ash. So translucent and manageable was this new composition, that it was soon generally adopted. From about 1815, the vast majority of British porcelain manufacturers produced what we now call "Bone China" or "English Bone China".
BAT-PRINTING : A form of printing upon ceramics introduced about 1800.The required image was produced from a series of dots making nearly invisible lines that can be filled with colours.
ENAMEL : A colouring pigment usually on a lead base, which is fired to the glaze for decorating ceramics in a low temperature kiln.
HARD-PASTE, or true porcelain was found and developed in China. It is made of fusible silicates of alumina (petuntse) and non-fusible silicates of alumina (kaolin) called by the English "china stone" and "china clay". Hard-paste porcelain, also called "China" in England is not porous even when unglazed, naturally of a whitish colour and less so translucent than soft-paste.
MUFFIN DISH : A covered dish used in a breakfast set to keep muffins hot for a traditional English breakfast.
ROCOCO : An asymmetrical style of decoration usually involving scrollwork, foliage, rockwork and shells. Rococo became fashionable in about 1755 on English porcelain and was revived about 1830 on Coalport and many other factories. Taken from the French, rocaille meaning shell-shaped.
SLOP BOWL : (or slop basin) Bowl (often of a large size) from tea services. It was used as a receptacle for cold tea to throw away from your cup.
SOFT-PASTE is very close to sand core glass. It was originally made in attempts to imitate real Chinese porcelain (hard-paste). China Clay (kaolin) had not been discovered in western hemisphere and the body was simply white non-fusible clay mixed with a frit composed of silica and alkaline salts in various proportions. Soft-paste is highly translucent and usually greenish or greyish.
TRIO : You can find two different kinds of trios : one means cup with saucer and tea plate, or tea cup with coffee cup and one saucer for both.
VICTORIAN : from Queen Victoria reign, c. 1837-1901
English main manufactures
CHARLES ALLERTON & Sons : Longton, 1859-1942, earthenware and china, lustre decoration, etc.
CHARLES AMISON (& Co Ltd), Longton, 1889-1962, porcelains, formerly Amison & Lawson, c.1878.
G. L. ASHWORTH & Bros. (Ltd) : Hanley, 1862-1968, earthenware, ironstone, etc., continues, as Masons China Ltd, from 1968.
JOHN AYNSLEY & Sons (Ltd) : Longton, since 1864, porcelains.
J. & M. P. BELL & Co (Ltd) : Glasgow, Scotland, 1842-1928, earthenware, parian, etc.
BELLEEK POTTERY : Fermanagh, Ireland, since 1863, parian, porcelain, etc.
BOOTH : Tunstall, with several different names (Thomas Booth & Co, BOOTH Limited, Booths & Colcloughs Ltd), 1868-1954, earthenware, and from 1948 bone china.
BOW CHINA WORKS : London, c.1747-c.1776, porcelain, mainly soft-paste. Bow was very popular in England in 18th century. One of the most successful uses of enamel colours on Bow wares is seen on those pieces decorated in one of the well-known Japanese Kakiemon styles. Perhaps because of their lack of highly skilled painters they succeed in recapturing the seemingly free manner of painting seen on the oriental wares, as opposed to the more painstaking copies on some Continental and English porcelains.
BRISTOL PORCELAIN : Bristol, c.1750-52 et 1770-81, porcelain (hard-paste during 1778-81 period).
CAUGHLEY (OR SALOPIAN) WORKS : near to Broseley, 1775-99, porcelain. Thomas Turner, founder of the Caughley works, had formerly been employed at the Worcester porcelain manufacture, which techniques he used in his own factory. Sold to John Rose & Co (Coalport).
CAULDON POTTERIES LTD : Stoke, 1920-62, china and earthenware, formerly, Cauldon Ltd.
CHAMBERLAIN(S) (& CO) : Worcester, c. 1786-1852, porcelains, subsequently Kerr & Binns. One of the main rivals for Worcester porcelain manufactory where Robert Chamberlain was an apprentice. Business was obviously so good that they opened a London shop in 1813. This thriving situation continued until 1840, when they were merged with Flight, Barr & Barr, under the name of Chamberlain & Co. Eventualy Chamberlain works were taken over by Kerr & Binns.
CHELSEA PORCELAIN WORKS : London, c. 1745-69, porcelain (soft-paste). One of the most popular 18th century English porcelain manufacture. Chelseas fine quality of work was praised with its sophisticated silverware shapes (Nicholas Sprimont, a Belgian silversmith founded the manufacture). Quality was the master card as Chelsea porcelain was showing very little originality in style, owing a great deal to the earlier exports from both China and Japan and the baroque fashions of Meissen, changing to the new rococo style popularised by Sèvres. Sold to William Duesbury, from Derby manufacture, in 1769.
COALPORT PORCELAIN WORKS (John Rose & Co) : Coalport, since 1795, (in Stoke-on-Trent from 1926), porcelain. High quality production, specialised in tableware (dinner, tea and dessert services). The manufacture flourished with rococo style revival.
COLLINGWOOD BROS. (LTD) : Longton, 1887-1957, china.
SUSIE COOPER CHINA LTD : Longton, 1950-59, Burslem from de 1959-61, Bone China.
SUSIE COOPER O.B.E. : Burslem, from 1930, earthenware and china.
W. T. COPELAND (& CO LTD) : Stoke, from 1847, porcelain, parian and earthenware, formerly Copeland & Garret.
CROWN STAFFORDSHIRE PORCELAIN CO. LTD : Fenton, since 1889, china.
HENRY & RICHARD DANIEL : Stoke, 1822-36, Fine quality porcelain and pottery.
DAVENPORT : (several differing names : W. Davenport & Co, Davenports Ltd, etc.), Longport, 1793-1887, earthenware, creamware, ironstone, porcelain, etc.
DERBY PORCELAIN WORKS (W. Duesbury, Bloor, Royal Crown Porcelain Co) : Derby, c. 1750-1848 and from 1878, porcelain.
William Duesbury period (enamel painter in London) - from 1750 to about 1820
From 1769 to 1775, William Duesbury was working the Chelsea factory in London and then at Derby. This period is known as the Chelsea-Derby period.
Bloor period- from c.1820 to 1848
The old works were closed in 1848. Some of the former artists and workmen opened a small factory in King Street, Derby, and continued the tradition of Derby porcelain. The King Street factory was taken over by the Royal Crown Derby Company Ltd in 1935.
Derby Crown Porcelain Company Ltd from 1876
Royal Crown Derby Porcelain Co Ltd from 1890s
DOULTON & CO (LTD) (known as Royal Doulton) : Burslem, since 1882, earthenware and china.
Royal Doulton became a very strong group in 20th century. They took over MINTON in 1968.
ALFRED FENTON & SONS : Hanley, 1887-1901, earthenware and china.
FORD (T. & C. Ford, Thomas Ford, Charles Ford) : Hanley, 1854-1904, porcelain. Taken over by J. A. Robinson & Sons Ltd in 1904.
GEORGES GRAINGER (& Co) : Worcester, c. 1839-1902, porcelain, parian, semi-porcelain, formerly Grainger, Lee & Co (1812-39).
HERCULANEUM POTTERY (Messrs Worthington, Humble & Holland, and other owners) : Liverpool, c. 1793-1841, earthenwares and porcelains.
HICKS & MEIGH : Shelton, 1806-22, earthenware, ironstone, formerly Baddeleys, subsequently Hicks, Meigh & Johnson (definitely closed in 1835).
HILDITCH & SON : Lane End, 1822-30, earthenware and china.
GEORGES JONES (& Sons Ltd) : Trent Pottery (c.1864-1907), Crescent Pottery (c. 1907-57), Stoke, earthenware, majolica, etc., and from 1872, china.
LOWESTOFT PORCELAIN FACTORY : Lowestoft, c.1757-99, porcelain (soft-paste and bone china).
MASON : several differing names from 1792 to 1848
Miles Mason, Islington Pottery, Liverpool (c.1792-1800)), and Victoria Pottery (c.1800-06), and Minerva Works, Lane Delph (c. 1806-16), porcelain.
G.M. & C.J. Mason, Patent Ironstone China Manufacture, Lane Delph, 1813-29, ironstone
C.J. Mason & Co, Patent Ironstone China Manufacture, Lane Delph, 1829-45, ironstone
C.J. Mason & Co, Lane Delph, 1845-48, ironstone and earthenware.
MINTON : Stoke, 1793, porcelain, earthenware, parian, majolica.
Founded by Thomas Minton in 1793, the factory employed the leading British and Continental artists and designers to build a pre-eminent reputation for both design and techniques. Lots of techniques and innovations - Sèvres pâte-sur-pâte, raised paste gold and acid gold process, are to be associated with Minton. Throughout Mintons history, important and influential artists and designers, such as Christopher Dresser, were attracted to the factory - " The worlds most beautiful china ", said Queen Victoria.
Minton & Boyle, 1836-41
Minton & Co, 1841-73
Minton & Hollins, 1845-68
Minton from 1950
Minton was sold to Royal Doulton group in 1968, but it is still working with its identity.
NANTGRAW CHINA WORKS : Nantgraw, Wales, c.1813-14 et 1817-22, porcelain (a fine translucent body).
NAUTILUS PORCELAIN CO : Glasgow, Scotland, 1896-1913, porcelain, parian, etc.
NEW HALL PORCELAIN WORKS : Hanley, 1781-1835, porcelain (soft-paste and bone china).
SAMUEL RADFORD (Ltd) : Longton and then Fenton, 1879-1957, china.
RIDGWAY : Cauldon Place, Hanley, with several differing names from 1802 to 1858 :
Job Ridgway, 1802-08, earthenwares
Job Ridgway & Sons, 1808-14, earthenwares
John & William Ridgway, 1814-c.1830, earthenwares and china
John Ridgway (& Co), 1830-55, earthenwares and china
John Ridgway, Bates & Co, 1856-58, earthenwares and china.
Subsequently, Bates, Brown-Westhead, Moore & Co.
RIDGWAYS, Hanley, 1879-1952, Earthenware : they started producing since 1873 under a different name
ROCKINGHAM WORKS : near to Swinton, Yorkshire, c.1745-1842, earthenwares and from 1826, porcelains.
ROYAL ALBERT (also Royal Albert Crown China) : Longton, from 1896, china, known as Thomas C. Wild & Co, 1896-1904
Thomas C. Wild, 1905-17, name Royal Albert appears during this period
Thomas C. Wild & Sons (Ltd), from 1917.
SHELLEY POTTERIES LTD : Longton, from 1925, china, formerly Wileman & Co (1892-25).
Spode pottery manufacture flourished beyond all expectation in Stoke, helped by the retail shop they had established in London to market their wares. Prior to the end of the 18th century the factory was producing nearly every type of ceramic ware common to Staffordshire at that time, with the exception of porcelain. It is accepted that Josiah Spode II invented bone ash porcelain around 1796. By comparison with some contemporary wares, Spodes services and decorative wares might well be considered heavily decorated, with their bright enamel colours and burnishing gilding. William Copeland, a former member of the staff, took over the manufacture in 1833.
SWANSEA PORCELAIN : Swansea, Wales, 1814-22, porcelain.
JOHN TURNER : Longton, c. 1762-1806, earthenware; creamware, Wedgwood type (jasperwares ) and rarely porcelain.
JOSIAH WEDGWOOD (& SONS LTD) : Burslem, from c.1759, Etruria, from c.1769, and Barlaston from 1940, earthenwares, basaltes, jaspers, porcelains, parian, majolica, etc.
Wedgwood remains well known for its universally recognised blue and white jasperwares. Since 1759 Wedgwood was producing every type of ceramics except porcelain that was introduced in 1812. One of the most famous English manufactures.
WORCESTER PORCELAIN : produced at the main factory at Worceseter from c.1751, porcelains (and in 19th century earthenware, parian, etc.)
First or " Dr. Wall " period - 1751-83
Flight period 1783-92
Barr and Flight & Barr period 1792-1807
Barr, Flight & Barr period 1807-1813
Flight, Barr & Barr period 1813-40
Works continued by Chamberlain c.1840-52
Kerr & Binns period (W.H. Kerr & Co) 1852-62
" Worcester Royal Porcelain Company Ltd " (ROYAL WORCESTER) from 1862
The Worcester porcelain concern is the only porcelain factory to have continued with an unbroken history from 1751 to the present day and has always been of a high quality.
Dernière modification : 18 May 2001